Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) isthe flagship outcome-based skill training scheme of the new Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE). The objective of this skill certification and reward scheme is to enable and mobilize a large number of Indian youth to take up outcome based skill training and become employable and earn their livelihood.Under the scheme, monetary reward would be provided to trainees who are successfully trained, assessed and certified in skill courses run by affiliated training providers.
Key features of the PMKVY are:
- Standards– Training will be done against standards (National Occupational Standards – NOS and Qualification Packs – QPs for specific job roles) formulated by industry-driven bodies, namely the Sector Skills Councils (SSCs). Third party assessments for skill training will be done based on national (and often) global standards.
- Direct Fund Transfer– It will have complete transparent funding of skill training without any intermediaries with monetary rewards directly transferred to the trainees bank account. It will ensure financial inclusion with a provision of unique multi-wallet facility linked to debit card and accidental insurance. Aadhaar number will be used for unique identification of each candidate.
- Demand-driven targets: Based on assessment of skill demand and the Skill Gap Studies, target for skill training would be allocated to training providers by job-role and by district/city to the extent possible, by NSDC in consultation with the SSCs, States/UTs and the Central Ministries/Departments under the oversight of the Steering Committee of PMKVY.
- Target aligned to national flagship programmes and regions: Target for skill training would be aligned to the demand from the Central Governments flagship programmes, such as – Swachh Bharat, Make in India, Digital India, National Solar Mission and so on.
- Supply side perspective in target fixation: Skill training under PMKVY would essentially target drop out students after class 10 and class 12 and hence these numbers will be taken into consideration while deciding state / district wise targets. There will be special focus on youth in regions affected by left-wing extremists and from North Eastern States and J&K.
- Recognition of prior learning (RPL): Under PMKVY, trainees with prior experience or skills and competencies will be assessed and they will also be given monetary rewards for undergoing assessments. This will be an important step towards recognising the skills possessed by workers working in the informal sector and their inclusion. This will also facilitate the process of skill upgradation and re-skilling of the existing workforce. The focus of RPL would be on those job-roles/sectors in which it is most desired and it will be accompanied with a strong advocacy campaign to promote a paradigm shift in the labour market to make skill training to standards aspirational.
- Variable amount of monetary reward: Monetary reward for various job roles within a sector would also vary. This amount would be arrived at after taking various factors like cost of training, willingness of trainees for pay and other relevant factors into consideration. Higher incentives will be given to training in manufacturing, construction and plumbing sectors.
- Robust regime for registration of training providers: NSDC training partners undergo due diligence before being registered with NSDC. Government affiliated training centres and other training partners will be approved by the SSCs on the basis of guidelines issued by NSDC. Under PMKVY, even the government affiliated training providers will undergo due diligence as per the process manual. Each training partner would be responsible for its entire franchisee network and the infrastructure of training centers. The same will be part of the monitoring process. Only first level of franchising would be allowed but the same should be declared in advance and validated on the basis of random sampling as per guidelines in the process manual.
- Focussed awareness building and mobilisation activities: Awareness building & mobilization activities would be carried out with the involvement of local State and district governments as well as involve Members of Parliament in the activities to ensure greater outreach and ownership. A camp-based approach by organizing Kaushal Melas to disseminate information about various skill training options, outline possible career paths and income generation potential once the training is imparted would be held in every district. Efforts will be made to ensure that the coverage of the scheme is across all the 543 constituencies in India. Skill Yatras through bus journeys will be explored to take awareness to the hinterlands and include live demonstration of skills in the buses. Non-governmental and community-based organizations would be involved in this activity to ensure widest possible reach and create an environment for skilling in the country. This would be supplemented with specialised and standardized branding and communication packages through mass media and social media. Periodic surprise checks and audits of the mobilisation phase would be conducted to ensure its continued efficacy.
- Improved curricula, better pedagogy and trained instructors: While, the thrust would be on outcomes in terms of third party assessment/certification, but support for improved curricula, better technology enabled pedagogy and upgrading the capacity of instructors would enable improving the overall ecosystem for high quality skill training in the country. All skill training would include soft skill training, personal grooming, behavioural change for cleanliness, and good work ethics as a part of the training curricula.
- Enhanced monitoring: To monitor the training process, SSCs will be tasked with verifying and recording details of all training centres on the Skill Development Management System (SDMS), and ascertain quality of training locations and courses through certified assessors during the time of assessments. Possibility of putting in place a system of bio-metric attendance and sample video recording would be explored. SSCs will also be responsible for certifying the training curriculum and for ensuring that it is aligned to QPs of job roles. In addition, SSCs will be tasked with certifying all trainers for the Scheme. Audit checks and surprise visits to training centres will also be conducted to ensure enhanced monitoring. Assessing process could be more technology driven and could also be carried out in CCTV environment.
- Mentorship support: A mentorship programme will be created in order to support trainees who have successfully completed the training programme and are in the process of looking for employment opportunities. Training providers will be responsible for identifying mentors who will support and guide trainees in the post-training phase. These mentors will provide career guidance and counselling for trainees once they have completed training and will also help connect them to employment opportunities. This mentorship programme will also facilitate the tracking of trainees in the post training phase.
- Evaluation: Trainee feedback based on validated standard format obtained at the time of assessment will become the key element of the evaluation framework to assess the effectiveness and scale up of PMKVY in future.
- Grievance redressal: A proper grievance redressal mechanism would be put in place. Online Citizens Portal would be set up to disseminate information about PMKVY. This would also serve as a platform for redressal of grievances. The portal would also include a complete database of all available courses and training centres under PMKVY.
The scheme will be implemented through the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).